عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Trade volume and share in global trade, especially high-tech exports, is one of the indicators of economic power in the modern economy. Global economic powers try to use formal and informal tools to keep their trade power through production and export of knowledge-intensive products. The aim of this paper is to firstly introduce these tools using comparative studies and secondly investigate the Iran's status in each tool. Studies show that emerging economies have been able to present themselves as new global players by expanding their high-tech exports. In addition, trade restrictions on goods, knowledge-based trade, foreign direct investment and international transfer of capital have been the most important tools for maintaining long-term economic power of great economies. Despite the importance of such tools, investigating the high-tech exports in Iran shows a low share of such products in country's trade because of factors such as lack of a master plan for production of high-tech goods, low rate of technology penetration among firms, low technology transfer through FDI and high investment risks because of sanctions, weak collaboration between industry and university, low spending in research and development (R&D) and limited financing resources. It should be noted that Iranian policy makers have not properly used these tools in order to improve country's position in global high-tech trade.