تحلیل تجربه مشتری و جایگاه آن در ادبیات بازاریابی

نوع مقاله: علمی- ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مدیریت بازرگانی-دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی، گرایش بازاریابی- دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

با معطوف شدن توجه محققان به سمت ارزش مشتری و جایگاه آن در بازاریابی، بررسی تجربه مشتری به مبحثی مهم در رفتار مصرف‌کننده تبدیل شده است. در طی دهه‌های پیشین تجربه مشتری از زوایای گوناگون مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته و امروزه بر پیاده‌سازی تجربه مشتری به عنوان ارزش سازمانی تأکید می‌شود. با مرور ادبیات و پیشینه پژوهش‌های خارجی انجام شده در بازه زمانی سال‌های1960 تا 2019، سعی بر آن بوده است تا علاوه بر مطالعه چگونگی پیدایش و روند توسعه تجربه مشتری، ابعاد و مراحل شکل‌گیری این مفهوم نیز مورد تحلیل قرار گیرد. نتایج حاصل حاکی از آن است که تجربه مشتری در افزایش عملکرد مالی کسب‌وکارها مؤثر است. همچنین تجربه مشتری می‌تواند جایگاه کسب‌وکارها را در ذهن مشتریان ارتقا دهد، به برقراری تعاملی سودمند با مشتریان کمک ‌کند و بر وفاداری مشتری اثر عمیقی بگذارد. علاوه بر این، اقتصاد تجربه، بازاریابی تجربه و ظهور کانال‌های ارتباطی چندگانه به عنوان مهم‌ترین مفاهیم در پیدایش و گسترش تجربه مشتری شناسایی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


نبی‌زاده، محمود (1373)، «مدل‌های رفتاری مصرف‌کننده»، نشریه نامه علوم اجتماعی، دوره 7، شماره 7، ص 284-267.

A Forrester consulting thought leadership paper commissioned by Accenture interactive., (2015), Digital transformation in the age of the customer. Retrieved from Accenture website: https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/DotCom/Documents/Global/PDF/Digital_2/Accenture-Digital-Transformation-In-The-Age-Of-The-Customer.pdf

Addis, M., & Holbrook, M. B., (2001), "On the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential consumption: an explosion of subjectivity". Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 1(1), 50-66.

Arnold, M. J., & Reynolds, K. E., (2003), "Hedonic shopping motivations". Journal of retailing, 79(2), 77-95.

Arnould, E. and Price, L., (1993), "River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service"

Bagozzi, R. P., Gopinath, M., & Nyer, P. U., (1999), "The role of emotions in marketing". Journal of the academy of marketing science, 27(2), 184-206.

Berry, L. L., Carbone, L. P., & Haeckel, S. H., (2002), "Managing the total customer experience". MIT Sloan management review, 43(3), 85-89.

Berry, L.L., (1995), "Relationship marketing of services: Growing interest, emerging perspectives". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23 (4), 236–245.

Bitner, M.J. (1990), Evaluating service encounters: The effects of physical surroundings and employee responses. Journal of Marketing, 54 (April), 69–82.

Bitner, M.J., (1992), "Servicescapes: The impact of physical surrounding son customers and employees". Journal of Marketing,56(April), 57–71.

Bitner, M.J., Ostrom A.L., and Morgan F.N., (2008), Service Blueprinting: A Practical Technique for Service Innovation, California Management Review, 50 (3), 66–94.

Bolton, R. N., Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C., (2004), "The theoretical underpinnings of customer asset management: A framework and propositions for future research". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(3), 271-292.

Bolton, R.N. & Drew J. H., (1991), "A multistage model of customers’ assessment of service quality and value", Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (4), 375–384.

Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L., (2009), "Brand experience: what is it? How is it measured? Does it affect loyalty?". Journal of marketing, 73(3), 52-68.

Brodie, R.J., Bhaskaran, V., Mirchandani, R., & Shah, M., (2013), "Creating a measurable social media marketing strategy: Increasing the value and ROI of intangibles and tangibles for Hokey Pokey". Marketing Science, 32 (2), 194-212.

Calder, B. J., Hollebeek, L. D., & Malthouse, E. C., (2018), "Creating stronger brands through consumer experience and engagement". In Customer Engagement Marketing (pp. 221-242). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Carbone, L. P., & Haeckel, S. H., (1994), "Engineering customer experiences". Marketing management, 3(3), 8-19.

Carpenter, J. M., Moore, M., & Fairhurst, A. E., (2005), "Consumer shopping value for retail brands". Journal of fashion marketing and management: an international journal, 9(1), 43-53.

Carù, A., & Cova, B., (2003), "Revisiting consumption experience: A more humble but complete view of the concept". Marketing theory, 3(2), 267-286.

Dictionary, O. E., (1989), Oxford english dictionary. Simpson, JA & Weiner, ESC.

Duignan B., A. M. Quinton, B.Quinton and R. Fumerton, (1998), Empiricism philosophy. Encyclopedia Britannica.Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/empiricism

Duncan, T., (2005), IMC: The new principles of advertising and promotion. 2nd ed. Boston, MA:

Dwyer, F.R., Schurr P.H. & Oh, S., (1987), "Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships". Journal of Marketing, 51(April),11–27.

Edvardsson, B., Enquist, B., & Johnston, R., (2005), "Cocreating customer value through hyperreality in the prepurchase service experience". Journal of service research, 8(2), 149-161.

Esty, D., & Winston, A., (2009), "Green to gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. John Wiley & Sons.

Forrester, (2017), Predictions 2018 a year of reckoning. Retrieved from Forrester website: https://go.forrester.com/2018-predictions/

Fournier, S., (1991), Meaning-based framework for the study of consumer-object relations. ACR North American Advances.

Franzen, G., & Moriarty, S. E., (2015), The science and art of branding. Routledge.

Gardner, M. P., (1985), "Mood states and consumer behavior: A critical review". Journal of Consumer research, 12(3), 281-300.

Gentile, C., Spiller, N., & Noci, G., (2007), How to sustain the customer experience:: An overview of experience components that co-create value with the customer. European management journal, 25(5), 395-410.

Giorgi, A., (1983), “Concerning the possibility of phenomenological research”, Journal of Phenomenological Research, Vol.14, Autumn, pp. 129-70.

Gofman, A., (2009), Experimentation-based product development in mature food categories: Advancing conjoint analysis approach (Doctoral dissertation).

Grewal, D., Levy, M., & Kumar, V., (2009), "Customer experience management in retailing: An organizing framework". Journal of retailing, 85(1), 1-14.

Grönroos, C., (2011), Value co-creation in service logic: A critical analysis. Marketing theory, 11(3), 279-301.

Gulati, R. & Oldroyd J.B., (2005), "The quest for customer focus". Harvard Business Review, 83 (April), 92–101.

Gupta, S., Zeithaml V., (2006), "Customer metrics and their impact on financial performance". Marketing Science, 25 (6),718–739.

Hirschman, E. C., & Holbrook, M. B., (1982), "Hedonic consumption: emerging concepts, methods and propositions". The Journal of Marketing, 92-101.

Hoch, S. J., (2002), "Product experience is seductive". Journal of Consumer Research, 29(3), 448-454.

Hollebeek, L.D., Glynn M.S.& Brodie R.J., (2014), "Consumer brand engagement in Social media: Conceptualization, scale development, and validation". Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28 (2),149-165.

Howard, J.A. and Sheth J., (1969), "The Theory of Buyer Behavior". New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Huffman, C., & Houston, M. J., (1993), "Goal-oriented experiences and the development of knowledge". Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), 190-207.

Hui, M. K., & Bateson, J. E., (1991), "Perceived control and the effects of crowding and consumer choice on the service experience". Journal of consumer research, 18(2), 174-184.

Jain, R., Aagja, J., & Bagdare, S., (2017), "Customer experience–a review and research agenda". Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 27(3), 642-662.

Joy, A., & Sherry Jr, J. F., (2003), "Speaking of art as embodied imagination: A multisensory approach to understanding aesthetic experience". Journal of consumer research, 30(2), 259-282.

Kerin, Roger A., Ambuj Jain, and Daniel J. Howard. (1992), ― "Store Shopping Experience and Consumer Price-Quality-Value Perceptions", Journal of Retailing, 68 (4), 376- 97.

Kotler, P., (1967), "Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control". Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kotri, A., (2011), "Customer Experience Evoking and Management in Services. Doctoral Thesis". Council of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Tartu University.

Kumar, V. & Shah, D., (2009), "Expanding the role of marketing: From customer equity to market capitalization". Journal of Marketing, 73 (November), 119–136.

Kumar, V., & Reinartz W., (2006), "Customer relationship management: A databased approach". New York, USA: John Wiley &Sons.

Kumar, V., J. Andrew Petersen, and Robert P. Leone, (2010), “Driving Profitability by Encouraging Customer Referrals: Who, When and How,” Journal of Marketing, 74, 1–17.

Kumar, V., J. Petersen, A., & Leone R.P., (2010), "Driving profitability by encouraging customer referrals: Who, when, and how". Journal of Marketing, 74 (5), 1–17.

Kumar, V., Rajan, B., Gupta, S., & Dalla Pozza, I., (2019), "Customer engagement in service". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47(1), 138-160.

Lavidge, R.J. and Steiner G.A., (1961), "A Model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness". Journal of Marketing,25 (November), 59–62.

Leighton, D., (2007), "Step back in time and live the legend’: Experiential marketing and the heritage sector". International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 12: 117–125.

Libai, B., Bolton R., B¨ugel M.S., Ruyter K., G¨otz O., Risselada H., et al., (2010), "Customer-to-customer interactions: broadening the scope of word of mouth research". Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 267–282

Mascarenhas, O. A., Kesavan, R., & Bernacchi, M., (2006), "Lasting customer loyalty: a total customer experience approach". Journal of consumer marketing, 23(7), 397-405.

Maslowska, E., Malthouse, E. C., & Collinger, T., (2016), "The customer engagement ecosystem". Journal of Marketing Management, 32(5-6), 469-501.

Mathwick, C., Malhotra, N. and Rigdon, E., (2001), “Experiential value: conceptualization, measurement and application in the catalog and internet shopping environment”, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 77 No. 1, pp. 39-56.

McKinney, L. N., (2004), "Creating a satisfying internet shopping experience via atmospheric variables". International Journal of Consumer Studies, 28(3), 268-283.

McKinsey & Company, (2016), "Customer experience: Creating value through transforming customer journeys". Special Insights –Compendium, Number 1.

McLellan, H., (2000), "Experience design. Cyberpsychology and Behavior", 3(1), 59-69.

Morgan, R. M. & Hunt Sh. D., (1994), "The commitment–trust theory of relationship marketing". Journal of Marketing,58,20-38.

Nambisan, P., & Watt, J. H., (2011), "Managing customer experiences in online product communities". Journal of Business Research, 64(8), 889-895.

Naylor, G., Kleiser, S. B., Baker, J., & Yorkston, E., (2008), "Using transformational appeals to enhance the retail experience". Journal of Retailing, 84(1), 49-57.

Neslin, S.A., Grewal, D., Leghorn R., Shankar V., Teerling M.L., Thomas J.S., et al.. (2006), "Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management". Journal of Service Research, 9 (2), 95–112.

Ofir, C., & Simonson, I., (2007), "The effect of stating expectations on customer satisfaction and shopping experience". Journal of Marketing Research, 44(1), 164-174.

Oliver, R.L., (1980), "A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions". Journal of Marketing Research, 17 (November), 460–469.

O'Loughlin, D., Szmigin, I., & Turnbull, P., (2004), "Branding and relationships: Customer and supplier perspectives". Journal of financial services marketing, 8(3), 218-230.

O'Loughlin, D., Szmigin, I., & Turnbull, P., (2004), "From relationships to experiences in retail financial services". International Journal of Bank Marketing, 22(7), 522-539.

Pansari, A., & Kumar, V., (2017), "Customer engagement: the construct, antecedents, and consequences". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(3), 294-311.

Pansari, A., & Kumar, V., (2018), "Customer Engagement Marketing". In Customer Engagement Marketing (pp. 1-27). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml & Berry, L., (1988), "SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality". Journal of Retailing, 64 (1), 12–40.

Pareigis, J., (2012), "Customer experiences of resource integration: Reframing servicescapes using scripts and practices" (Doctoral dissertation, Karlstads universitet).

Payne, A. & Frow P., (2005), "A strategic framework for customer relationship management". Journal of Marketing,69 (October),167–76.

Petkus Jr, E., (2004), "Enhancing the application of experiential marketing in the arts". International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 9(1), 49-56.

Pham, M. T., Cohen, J. B., Pracejus, J. W., & Hughes, G. D., (2001), "Affect monitoring and the primacy of feelings in judgment". Journal of consumer research, 28(2), 167-188.

Pine, B. J. & Gilmore, J. H., (1998), "The experience economy: Work is theater and every business a stage". Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Pine, B. J., Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. H., (1999), "The experience economy: work is theatre & every business a stage". Harvard Business Press.

Poulsson, S., & Kale, S., (2004), "The Experience Economy and Commercial Experiences". The Marketing Review, 4, 267-77.

Rawson, A., Duncan, E., & Jones, C., (2013), "The truth about customer experience". Harvard Business Review, 91(9), 90-98.

Reinartz, W. & Kumar, V., (2000), "On the profitability of long- life customers in a non-contractual setting: An empirical investigation and implications for marketing". Journal of Marketing,64 (October), 17–35.

Reinartz, W., Krafft M. & Hoyer W., (2004), "The customer relationship management process: Its measurement and impact on performance". Journal of Marketing Research,41 (August), 293–305.

Rust, R. T., Lemon, K. N., & Zeithaml, V. A., (2004), "Return on marketing: Using customer equity to focus marketing strategy". Journal of marketing, 68(1), 109-127.

Rust, R.T. and Chung T.S., (2006), "Marketing models of service and relationships". Marketing Science, 25 (6), 560–80.

Salem Khalifa, A., (2004), "Customer value: a review of recent literature and an integrative configuration". Management decision, 42(5), 645-666.

Schmitt, B., (1999), "Experiential marketing". Journal of marketing management, 15(1-3), 53-67.

Schmitt, B., (2011), "Experience marketing: concepts, frameworks and consumer insights". Foundations and Trends® in Marketing, 5(2), 55-112.

Shah, D., Rust R.T., Parasuraman A., Staelin R. & Day G.S., (2006), "The path to customer centricity". Journal of Service Research, 9 (2), 113–24.

Sheth,, J.N., Sisodia, R.S., & Sharma A., (2000), "The antecedents and consequences of customer-centric marketing". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (1), 55–66.

Sundbo, J., (2009), "Innovation in the experience economy: a taxonomy of innovation organisations". The Service Industries Journal, 29(4), 431-455.

Tarssanen, S., & Kylänen, M., (2005), "A theoretical model for producing experiences–a touristic perspective". Articles on experiences, 2(1), 130-149.

Thompson, C. J., Locander, W. B., & Pollio, H. R., (1989), "Putting consumer experience back into consumer research: The philosophy and method of existential-phenomenology". Journal of consumer research, 16(2), 133-146.

Tynan, C., & McKechnie, S., (2009), "Experience marketing: a review and reassessment". Journal of marketing management, 25(5-6), 501-517.

Van, D, Katherine J., Lemon, Vikas Mittal, N., Nass S., Pick, D., Pirner P. et al., (2010), "Customer engagement behavior: Theoretical foundations and research directions". Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 253–266.

Vargo, S.L. and Lusch, R.F., (2004), “Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 68, pp. 1‐17.

Vargo, S.L. and Lusch, R.F., (2008), “Service dominant logic: continuing the evolution”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 1‐10

Verhoef, P. C., Lemon, K. N., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. A., (2009), "Customer experience creation: Determinants, dynamics and management strategies". Journal of retailing, 85(1), 31-41.

Verhoef, P.C., (2003), "Understanding the effect of customer relationship management efforts on customer retention and customer share development". Journal of Marketing, 67(October), 30–45.

Vohra, A., & Bhardwaj, N., (2019), "From active participation to engagement in online communities: Analysing the mediating role of trust and commitment". Journal of Marketing Communications, 25(1), 89-114.

Wakefield, K. L., & Baker, J., (1998), "Excitement at the mall: determinants and effects on shopping response". Journal of retailing, 74(4), 515-539.

Weinberg, P., & Gottwald, W., (1982), "Impulsive consumer buying as a result of emotions". Journal of Business research, 10(1), 43-57.

Yuksel, A., (2004), "Shopping experience evaluation: a case of domestic and international visitors". Tourism Management, 25(6), 751-759.

Zaltman, G., (1997), "Rethinking market research: Putting people back in". Journal of marketing Research, 424-437.

Zarantonello, L., & Schmitt, B. H., (2010), "Using the brand experience scale to profile consumers and predict consumer behaviour". Journal of Brand Management, 17(7), 532-540.

Zeithaml, V. A., (1988), "Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means–and model and synthesis of evidence". Journal of Marketing, 52 (July), 2–22.